Control Technologies & After-treatment Systems
Pollutants Formation Mechanisms
Four main pollutants that should be minimized by optimizing combustion and improving after-treatment of the exhaust are hydrocarbons (HCs), nitrous oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2),
There are two kinds of internal combustion engines currently in production the spark-ignition (SI) gasoline engine and the compression-ignition (CI) diesel engine. The CI engine with its lean burning nature has the benefit of one-fifth of the HC emissions of SI engines. Both yield an impressive combustion efficiency – 98% for CI and 95% to 98% for SI. This is rather surprising considering the very non-homogeneous mixture, with some very rich and very lean spots present during combustion.
The higher the compression ratio (rc = 16 to 20 for CI and rc = 6 to 10 for SI) the more fuel leakage past exhaust valves and into crevice volumes. Up to 3% of the fuel is trapped, bearing in mind the gap size is larger when the engine is cold. Unfortunately, these fuel-rich zones cause soot to form. Also, due to the high temperature and pressure during the combustion process, large amounts of NOx are formed. The max temperature occurs at an expansion ratio of ER (ϕ) = 1 but due to the short time available for each engine cycle, incomplete mixing occurs, and max NOx formation occurs at ϕ = 0.95. Keeping in mind CI engines operate with an overall lean ϕ, there is plenty of oxygen available to form NOx.
The diesel engine power is supplied by controlling the amount of fuel injected, rather than the air supply as is done in an SI engine. At engine idle, in an SI engine, the throttle is near closed and the air supply is restricted, resulting in not enough oxygen supplied to burn with the fuel and the emissions are poor. On the other hand, the CI engine which is un-throttled does have enough oxygen to burn the fuel, so the emissions are less at idle. However, when running under high loads (wide open throttle – WOT) the CI engine operates with a rich mixture and results in poor fuel economy and makes significant amounts of smoke. Fortunately, this black smoke has become much cleaner since 2000 and the exhaust odor today is much less pungent due to the reduction in the sulfur content. Over 90% of carbon particles are consumed during combustion. Due to the higher rc and temperatures more lubricating oil is used and vaporized which accounts for 25% of the carbon in soot. Soluble organic fraction (SOF) due to expansion cooling is up to 50% at low loads but only 3% at high loads. Therefore, the great benefits CI offers at light loads, due to not being air-limited and decreased HC emissions, is increased SOF due to high amounts of oil used and cool temperatures that cause more expansion cooling. Also, there is a trade-off between having a large ηth (a function of high rc and subsequent large expansion cooling) which increases engine performance but also results in cooler exhaust temperatures which may be desired for thermally activated aftertreatments.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
NOx reduction technique known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) recirculates a portion of the exhaust gas to mix with the incoming air. This exhaust acts as a diluent to prevent the dissociation of nitrogen and oxygen in the air by decreasing the peak combustion temperatures (high temperatures encountered in CI engines due to high compressive heating). The dissociation of diatomic nitrogen into monatomic nitrogen (N2 -> 2N) is highly dependent on temperature, with a much more significant amount of N generated in the 2,500 – 3,000 K range which can exist in an engine. Other reactions that contribute to the formation of NOx are O2 -> 2O and H2O -> OH + ½ H2.
NOx is one of the primary causes of photochemical smog, which has become a major problem in many large cities in the world. It is especially important to eliminate NOx and fortunately, EGR can eliminate all but a fraction of a percent and most modern CI engines use EGR during engine operation. Another harmful exhaust product that EGR can help lessen is CO, which is created when CO2 dissociates according to CO2 -> CO + O. Unfortunately, EGR results in large amounts of particulate matter (PM) black soot which is left unburned in the power stroke and must be filtered.
The exhaust increases the specific heat capacity (ΔT ~ Q/ cp) of the incoming air and downstream air-fuel mixture (AFR), which lowers the adiabatic flame temperature and increases the ηv. Even though the combustion temperature decreases, there is waste heat recovery in the soot and therefore less fuel is burned, with the net result of a minor decrease in ηc. It should be observed that when high load conditions are encountered the peak combustion temperature needs to be high; the opposite is true during low loads. By tailoring the EGR flow to the engine conditions, less EGR can be used for high load conditions.
Both internal and external EGR types exist. A turbocharger (turbine-compressor) is almost always used in conjunction with the EGR recirculation. Since there is compressive heating due to compressor, there is the addition of an intercooler after the compressor and a connection is made to a separate amount of EGR that just goes through an EGR cooler. This mixture then flows into the combustion chamber for impending combustion at a lesser peak combustion temperature.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Stricter regulations on emissions, specifically the high levels of particulate matter (PM) that result from EGR, require a diesel particulate filter in the exhaust system. One issue with using a filter is keeping the filter from getting clogged. The filter is cleaned, or regenerated, by oxidizing the soot that gets trapped in the filter. Thermal regeneration can be achieved by using either an active or passive system. Active systems spray air and fuel into the exhaust to increase the temperature. The obvious downside to combusting fuel in the exhaust manifold with the sole purpose of decreasing emissions is the fuel penalty and further emissions from burning this added fuel. Fortunately, other forms of heating the exhaust exist such as electrically-assisted diesel particulate filter (EADPF). When the backpressure reaches 150
Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR)
Another after-treatment used to convert NOx to N2 and H2O with the aid of a catalyst is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). A reductant is a chemical that donates electrons (addition of a hydrogen molecule). This chemical is sprayed into the catalyst chamber and mixes with the exhaust. Typical reductants are anhydrous or aqueous ammonia or urea; less common are cyanuric acid and ammonium sulfate. Urea is a common reducing agent. Unfortunately, it must be thermally decomposed into automotive-grade urea, otherwise known as diesel exhaust fluid (urea in water). Furthermore, its use as an effective reductant results in small amounts of CO2 as a reaction product. Any application that has an exhaust flue can benefit from this treatment (2% – 6% urea added to fuel amount), but it is particularly attractive in diesel engines since it reduces NOx by 70% – 95% . The active catalytic components are usually oxides of base metals (V, W) or precious metals. Base metals lack high thermal durability, which is important in an automotive engine and has a high potential to oxidize sulfur (2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 & SO3 + H2O = H2SO4), which is very damaging to the SCR system itself due to its acidic nature. This high catalyzing potential of sulfur explains why ultra-low sulfur diesel is required for 2010 car models. The exhaust which contains sulfur dioxide is also the constituent of acid rain, which is harmful to marine life and building structures. Zeolite (iron and copper exchanged) overcomes both shortcomings. The most common geometries are honeycomb and plate; conversely, the less common is corrugated. The honeycomb type configuration is smaller than the plate, but has higher pressure drops and can plug more easily. There are limitations to SCR systems such that most catalysts being porous material can easily become plugged and, as such, decrease the life of the catalyst. The SCR systems can be independent of the engine controller which makes them practical for retrofit. These systems reduce NOx up to 98%, PM 40% – 60%, total HC by 80%, and CO by more than 90%, along with being a highly effective diesel oxidation (DOX) catalyst.
Tier 4 Diesel Emissions Standards
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets the regulations for emissions from engines among many other processes and chemicals used or burned which degrade the environment. Exhaust from cars is even more of a negative externality in large cities due to the increased number of cars and the proximity of power plants to a myriad of people. This means people (and buildings) are particularly susceptible to the damage that acid rain causes due to the small percent of sulfur in fuel. More importantly, people cannot avoid the health hazards that result from breathing air that is filled with harmful particles, and the subsequent trapping of the particles in their lungs. Previously for Tier 1 – 3 there was no regulation on the diesel fuel sulfur content, and it was at 3,000 ppm (0.5% wt, max). However, by June 2007 it was 500 ppm, by June 2010 for nonroad fuel it was 15 ppm and similarly 15 ppm by June 2012 for locomotive and marine fuels. Tier 4 emissions standards were introduced in May 2004 with a phase-in period from 2008 – 2015. It applies to all non-road diesel engines of all sizes used in a wide range of construction, agricultural and industrial equipment. The most noticeable achievement of Tier 4 standards was the reduction of PM and NOx emissions by ~90%.
- Bright Hub Engineering. 2008. http://www.brighthubengineering.com/machine-design/1537-comparison-of-spark-ignition-si-and-compression-ignition-ci-engines.
- Mo, Yanbin. “HCCI Heat Release Rate And Combustion Efficiency: A Coupled Kiva Multi-Zone Modeling Study. Dissertation”. The University of Michigan. 2008. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/60734/yanbinm_1.pdf?sequence=1.
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